Lighthouse Leader Study Guide Date: April 2, 2017 Series: The kings & the King: A Study of 1 Samuel 1 Samuel 18 This Week’s Printable Resources:
Overview of this Lesson
Some weeks I enter into the writing process with a limited amount of material. The focus of our text may be a verse or two, and it’s difficult to develop a complete lesson on those two verses. That’s not the case this week. Our text is 1 Samuel 18-20, and I have chosen to focus on 1 Samuel 18. Even by narrowing our text down to one chapter, there is still enough in these 30 verses to write four lessons!
Consider this a gentle warning that this week’s lesson is a full bucket. I will acknowledge up front that it will be difficult to lead a group through every jot and tittle. With that said, I encourage you to read the entire lesson so you have the context, but then prayerfully select the key points you want to focus on for your group. Consider this a buffet instead of a seven course meal.
Here are the key lessons from this week:
- To grow us spiritually and to keep us humble, great victories are often followed by great trials.
- God uses the “Sauls” in our life to mold and shape us into the men and women He can use for His purposes.
- Through His grace and mercy, God provides close friends to walk through the valleys with us to encourage us and support us.
- Through His providence, God protects and cares for His people in spite of seemingly overwhelming physical and spiritual danger.
Memory Verse for This Week
“And David behaved wisely in all his ways, and the LORD was with him. Therefore, when Saul saw that he behaved very wisely, he was afraid of him. But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.” 1 Samuel 18:14-16 (NKJV)
This Week’s Core Virtue
Humility (Philippians 2:3-4): I choose to esteem others above myself.
This Week’s Take Home Truth
“God’s faithfulness to us is often seen in the face of a friend with a mutual faith, that one who loves us in both the victories and valleys of life and “sticks closer than a brother.”
- Can you describe a time in your life when a close friend helped you through a tremendous trial?
- If you had to identify a couple of “essential qualities” of a close friend, what would they be?
- Looking back at your notes from this week’s sermon, was there anything that particularly caught your attention, challenged or confused you?
Make sure you ask this question this week. It gives people the opportunity to discuss questions or issues that come up beyond the written questions. People’s responses can often lead into one of the questions in the “Digging Deeper” section. Also, some weeks this question will result in a lot of discussion, other weeks, not so much. Read the Text (1 Samuel 18)
Goliath’s cold, dead body lay on the battlefield, the birds of the air eating his flesh. In an instant, David has gone from a nobody to a national hero. With fame and fortune, however, comes trials and challenges. In this case, David’s fame puts him in the crosshairs of King Saul, who feels threatened and envious of David. It is important to remember that the last 12 chapters of 1 Samuel represent years in David’s life. This is not a short-lived trial. Yet, it is in this crucible of living life as a man on the run that God shows Himself strong and protective of David. It is during these years that God transformed a shepherd boy into a king! Read 1 Samuel 18.
NOTE: Our text for this week includes 1 Samuel 18-20. While the focus of this week’s Lighthouse lesson will be Chapter 18, here’s a summary of the three chapters from Butler’s Daily Bible Reading to help give you the broader context.
After killing Goliath, David’s life really changed. These three chapters show some of those changes which occurred for David of which many were most unpleasant.
1 SAMUEL 18 – PROMOTION FOR DAVID.
Achievement on the battle field resulted in promotion for David as a soldier and in society.
- Passion for David: Jonathan, Saul’s son, became a great friend of David.
- Position of David: he was given leadership in the army.
- Praise for David: returning from battle the women said David had slain ten thousand but Saul only a thousand.
- Problems for David: Saul’s jealously and javelin made life dangerous for David.
- Partner for David: Saul deceived David about marrying his oldest daughter but gave his youngest daughter to David in marriage; Saul had hoped the dowry demand would result in David’s death.
- Performance of David: four times (vv. 5, 10, 13, 27) Scripture says David behaved wisely all this time.
1 SAMUEL 19 – PROTECTION FOR DAVID.
Here are four acts of protection for David from Saul’s murderous intentions.
- First, protection by the prince: Jonathan protected David by intervening with his father Saul.
- Second, protection by promptness: Saul again threw the javelin at the harp-playing David, but David escaped by promptness.
- Third, the protection by his partner: Michal helped David escape from her father by helping David flee and putting an image in bed.
- Fourth, protection by prophecy: David fled to Samuel; and when Saul pursued David, he was stopped by the spirit of prophecy which came upon Saul.
1 SAMUEL 20 – PARTING OF DAVID.
David now leaves the service of Saul permanently.
- Conclusion by David: he tells Jonathan that “there is but step between me and death” (v. 3) because of Saul’s murderous designs against David.
- Covenant with Jonathan: this involved a plan for David to leave and for Jonathan to ascertain his father’s attitude and later tell David the information by the shooting of arrows.
- Contempt from Saul: at a meal, Saul reveals his murderous contempt for David before Jonathan and even tries to kill Jonathan because he is a friend of David.
- Communication to David: as planned, Jonathan told this news to David and David departed from Saul’s service.
In this section, feel free to develop your own questions to help guide your group’s discussion. Below are some suggestions. Remember, if you are hearing from everyone in your group, chances are you won’t have to time to discuss every question. You may start with one that catches your attention so you don’t run out of time. For example, it’s not odd to start with Question #6, then go to Question #5 and if you have time come back to Question #4.
4. What does Saul’s reaction to David’s great victory over Goliath teach us about personal conflict?
One of the most difficult concepts for all of us to grasp about life is The Law of Unintended Consequences. As humans, we think in a linear mode. B follows A, C follows B. 2+2=4. All of that makes complete sense. Problems occur when we attempt to view life in an equally simplistic manner. Life is incredibly complex, and happens in a very nonlinear manner.
The Law of Unintended Consequences runs on the rails of uncertainty and nonlinear events. We see this clearly as we turn to 1 Samuel 18 for this week’s lesson.
David has just won the greatest military victory in Israel’s history. His stunning defeat of the Philistine Giant will go down in history right next to Israel’s flight from Egypt through the divided waters of the Red Sea. The Valley of Elah, site of the victory, is about three-and-a-half hours from Gibeah, where Saul’s home was located. By the time Saul and David returned to Gibeah from the battlefield, word had already spread and the women were ready to greet the hero with a ticker-tape parade, only in this case it would be a parade route lined with singing women and tambourines.
The Bible doesn’t describe the scene with great detail, but typically, in biblical times, military heroes would have been welcomed by a parade riding in a chariot with mounted soldiers following him. If there were prisoners taken during the battle, they would have been in chains walking behind the hero and the mounted soldiers. Any plunder or valuables taken from the defeated enemy would have also been on display. In this case, it would not have been uncommon for soldiers to have carried the head of Goliath and his various pieces of armor as a part of the parade.
As Saul and David entered the city, the women began to sing,
“Saul has slain his thousands, And David his ten thousands.”
Imagine the scene as the women sing and shake their tambourines, and crowd the chariot with Saul and David. The heroes are standing tall and smiling and greeting the crowd. It is indeed a time of great joy and celebration.
But something happens inside of Saul. He hears the words being sung and the Bible tells us he became “very angry” (v. 8). The Hebrew word used here for “angry” is charah, which describes an internal, burning anger. This is not anger that happens in a flash, this is a slow burn.
You can see the smile on Saul’s face slowly turn to a grimace as he allows the words of the song to sink into his heart.
The “Song of Victory” in 18:7 is the spark that lights the eternal flame of jealousy and envy in Saul. Warren Wiersbe correctly states,
“Envy is a dangerous and insidious enemy, a cancer that slowly eats out our inner life and leads us to say and do terrible things. Proverbs 14:30 rightly calls it “the rottenness of the bones.” Envy is the pain we feel within when somebody achieves or receives what we think belongs to us. Envy is the sin of successful people who can’t stand to see others reach the heights they have reached and eventually replace them.
Saul’s envy of David would reveal many deep, troubling issues brewing inside of him. Saul’s envy and jealousy become the identifiable theme of the remainder of his life, which will end in suicide.
Saul’s envy causes him to become deeply troubled by David. His own paranoia becomes obvious to those around him as Saul begins to question David’s motives and feel threatened by David’s success. Saul demonstrates the truthfulness of the words spoken by Michael Corleone in The Godfather II, “keep your friends close, keep your enemies closer.” This was Saul’s thinking. He no longer viewed David as a friend, a faithful warrior, even a son-in-law, he viewed him as the enemy (v. 29).
Here are some verses that describe the evil that envy can bring into a person’s life:
- Psalm 37:32 “The wicked watches the righteous, And seeks to slay him.”
- Proverbs 14:30 “A sound heart is life to the body, But envy is rottenness to the bones.”
- Proverbs 23:17–18 “Do not let your heart envy sinners, But be zealous for the fear of the Lord all the day; For surely there is a hereafter, And your hope will not be cut off.”
- Galatians 5:26 “Let us not become conceited, provoking one another, envying one another.”
As we finish out our study of 1 Samuel, our empathy will pour out towards David. As Bob Marcaurelle reminds us,
Don’t pity David, pity Saul. He is the one troubled most in these accounts. No outward trial can compare with the self-torment of wicked men. Saul turning madder day by day is the victim of his own sin. The cruelest emotion known to man, jealousy, entered his heart and gnawed away at the core of his humanity. His peace was gone. His pleasures were filled with gall. He had, says Parker, a cruel serpent gnawing at his heart. David, my friends, did not have to lift a hand against Saul. The “evil spirit from the Lord” within him was punishment enough.
NOTE: At the end, I have included a good article about how to recognize the cancer of envy in your life or someone you love, and how to begin the healing process.
5. What does the relationship between David and Jonathan teach us about the importance of good, godly friends?
It’s easy to assume as you read through 1 Samuel 16 and following that David’s life followed a neat, linear path: he was anointed king by Samuel (Chapter 16), he slays Goliath and becomes an instant national hero (Chapter 17), he endures some petty envy from Saul before he is crowned King of Israel (Chapter 18 and following). That’s not how it happened.
Commentators agree that David was probably in his mid-teens when he was anointed by Samuel; David was likely in his late teens or early 20s when he killed Goliath; David was likely 40 or older when he became king. Do your math and that means David lived 25 years after he was anointed king before he actually ascended to the office. That is a long time. It’s important to keep this in mind as we read through the trials David faced during these years. God knew David would need a faithful friend, mentor, and protector, and that man was Jonathan, King Saul’s oldest son.
We’ve already met Jonathan in earlier chapters. In his own way, Jonathan was a war hero and highly skilled military commander. More importantly, like David, the presence of the Lord was with Jonathan (14:45).
One common misconception about the relationship between Jonathan and David is that they were close in age. This is not the case Commentators agree that as the seen in 1 Samuel 18 unfolds, Jonathan was perhaps in his mid-50s and David in his early 20s. This age difference is important because it emphasizes all the more the incredible humility and insight Jonathan displays.
Unlike Jonathan’s father, Saul, Jonathan immediately recognizes the presence of God in David’s life. Perhaps Jonathan remembered the prophecy from the First Book of Moses that declared, “the scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes” (Gen. 49:10). Knowing David came from the tribe of Judah, Jonathan may have recognized David as the first in a line of long-prophesied kings who would ultimately bring Shiloh, the once and future king.
Regardless, what Jonathan does in 1 Samuel 18:1-6 is truly an amazing and controversial thing. In essence, Jonathan abdicates his right to the throne to David. A law of succession had not been created yet in Israel (Saul was the first man to rule as king), but the common tradition in the surrounding countries at that time was for the oldest son to succeed to his father’s throne. As the oldest son of Saul, Jonathan was both the Crown Prince and Commanding General of Saul’s armies. In the hierarchy of men, Jonathan answered only to Saul.
Verses 3-4 describe the cutting of a covenant between Jonathan and David. J.C. Laney describes the nature of this covenant:
This covenant was unilateral (binding on one party only) in which Jonathan committed himself to David with complete disregard for self. There in the foothills of western Judah, he also gave to David all that distinguished Jonathan as the king’s son and heir: His long outer robe, the long “exterior tunic, fuller and larger than the common one, but without sleeves … worn by … men of birth and rank or priests (28:14) His garments (; also 17:38, 39), i.e. his armor coat or military garments, His weapons—his sword and his bow His girdle.
The closest comparison we can identify with today would be a crown worn by a monarch. In today’s terms, Jonathan took of his crown as Crown Prince and future king, and placed it on David’s head.
Why would Jonathan do this? S. G. DeGraaf is on the right track when he says, “This deed on his part was an act of faith. Only faith makes us willing to be the lesser. Faith causes us to surrender the rights we pretend to have over against the Christ, who is truly Israel’s king.”
Through the eyes of faith, Jonathan could clearly and rightly see the future king of Israel.
There is another, more practical reason, however; God knew that David would need both a friend and protector in the years ahead as he endured the constant threat from Saul. Jonathan proved to be this man, a friend to David who was “closer than a brother.” The Bible tells us that the “soul of Jonathan and the soul of David was knit together.” Their friendship was one between kindred spirits, both men of faith and wisdom on whom God’s presence was obvious. As we will see, David will certainly need a friend like Jonathan in the years ahead.
- Proverbs 18:24 A man who has friends must himself be friendly, But there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.
- Proverbs 27:6 Faithful are the wounds of a friend, But the kisses of an enemy are deceitful.
- Proverbs 27:17 As iron sharpens iron, So a man sharpens the countenance of his friend.
- Luke 7:34 The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Look, a glutton and a winebibber, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’
6. What does David’s experience in this week’s text teach us about God’s School of Leadership?
Few things in life can test the character of a man like success. The killing of Goliath, while indeed a great victory for David, led him into one of the deepest, longest, and darkest valleys of his entire life. For the next 20 years, David would be a man on the run, one step in front of Saul and his death squads seeking to end David’s life. It was during these years, however, that God would place David in His School of Leadership, using the dark days of trials to prepare David to serve as king.
What we see in 1 Samuel 18 is the tremendous character and wisdom of David. In fact, on four different occasions (vs. 5, 14, 15, and 30), the Bible mentions that David “behaved wisely.” (The ESV translates this word “successful; the NASB translates this as “prospering.” The point being made is that God gave David great success and stature in the eyes of everyone.) If there is a single statement that best describes David at this time in his life, it would be this one: And David had success in all his undertakings, for the LORD was with him” (v. 14).
In spite of his success, however, David’s life was one challenge after another. One thing is clear as we read through these next chapters: Saul was a thorn in David’s flesh. He was persistent. He tries to kill David (twice) by throwing a spear at him. He promises his daughter to the man who can slay Goliath, and then gives her to another man. When Saul’s younger daughter expresses her love for David to Saul, he uses his daughter to try and force David into a battle in which he is sure to die…but David lives.
Here’s the key we must learn about God’s School of Leadership: Anyone who is anointed for leadership has to be around a person like Saul sometime in his life. God uses the “Sauls” in our lives to get the “Saul” out of us. God always puts us around someone who is like sandpaper to smooth oﬀ our rough edges.
Think back in your life and see if this isn’t true? Perhaps this “Saul” in your life was a teacher, a boss, a drill sergeant, or some other authority figure who wore you down with his/her nitpicking and dictatorial power. Yet, as you look back on that time in your life, you recognize that you are better today because of it. I know this is certainly true in my life. (Ironically, the “Saul” in my life was named David.)
Rather than stumble and fall during his years of dark trials, David’s life on the run made proved his character. If we want to lead in life, we must first learn to serve in circumstances that may not be ideal and learn how to behave wisely. David learned how to be king by first learning how to submit himself to authority.
- Proverbs 27:21 The refining pot is for silver and the furnace for gold, And a man is valued by what others say of him.
- Ephesians 5:15–21 See then that you walk circumspectly, not as fools but as wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Therefore do not be unwise, but understand what the will of the Lord is. And do not be drunk with wine, in which is dissipation; but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord, giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, submitting to one another in the fear of God.
7. What does David’s experience in this week’s text teach us about God?
There are two great themes running through these chapters of 1 Samuel, Saul’s envy, fear and paranoia that drives him to seek to kill David, and God’s hand of protection that supernaturally keeps David safe.
Theologians refer to this as God’s providential care. We see this most explicitly in the Book of Esther, where God is never mentioned, but his fingerprints are all over Esther’s life. We see this in the life of David during his years on the run following his victory over Goliath.
In Chapters 18-20 we see four clear acts of God protecting David from Saul’s attempts to kill him:
- Jonathan intervening with his father Saul
- David’s quick reaction to Saul throwing a spear at him while playing his harp for Saul
- Michal’s help as David makes a quick escape from one of Saul’s death squads
- The Spirit of God stopping Saul as he pursued David and caused Saul to start prophesying.
In each of these cases, God directly intervened to protect David and keep him safe.
If 1 Samuel 18:14 describes David’s life at this time (And David had success in all his undertakings, for the LORD was with him), then Romans 8:31 accurately describes God’s providence during this time in David’s life: “What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?”
These questions are given to prompt both reflection and learning on a personal level, and should likely be completed individually and apart from your regular group time.
8. Looking back at this week’s teaching and study, what’s the most important thing to remember? 9. Is there anyone who treats you as a “constant enemy” (v. 29) as Saul treated David? Remember the bible’s instructions about enemies: forgive them, love them, and pray for them (Matthew 5:44). 10. There are three great lessons from these chapters: 1) to grow us spiritual, great victories are often followed by great trials; 2) In times of great trials, we often find great and unexpected blessings–friends like Jonathan; 3) The trials of godly people do not compare in severity with the self-torment of wicked people.
Courage brother do not stumble, Tho’ thy path is dark as night. There’s a star to guide the humble– Trust in God, and do the right!
Perish policy and cunning, Perish all that fears the light, Whether losing, whether winning, Trust in God, and do the right.
Some will hate thee, some will love thee. Some will ﬂatter, some will slight; Cease from man and look above thee— Trust in God, and do the right.
Friend of a Wounded Heart
By Wayne Watson & Claire Cloninger
NOTE: This is one of my favorite songs. It was originally recorded by Wayne Watson, but my favorite recording is by the Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir with Damaris Carbaugh as soloist. Here’s a recording of the song on YouTube: https://youtu.be/kyMiEBvhL6c. Music is a powerful way to communicate simply truths to God’s people.
The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Look, a glutton and a winebibber, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ – Luke 7:34
Smile, make ’em think you’re happy Lie and say that things are fine And hide that empty longing that you feel Don’t ever show it, just keep your heart concealed
Why are the days so lonely? I wonder where, where can a heart go free And who will dry the tears that no one’s seen? There must be someone to share your silent dreams
Caught like a leaf in the wind Lookin’ for a friend, where can you turn? Whisper the words of a prayer and you’ll find Him there Arms open wide, love in His eyes
Jesus, He meets you where you are Jesus, He heals your secret scars All the love you’re longing for Is Jesus, the friend of a wounded heart
Joy comes like the the morning And hope deepens as you grow And peace, beyond the reaches of your soul Comes blowing through you, for love has made you whole
Once like a leaf in the wind Looking for a friend, where could you turn? You spoke the words of a prayer and you found Him there Arms open wide, love in His eyes
Jesus, He meets you where you are Jesus, He heals your secret scars All the love you’re longing for Is Jesus, the friend of a wounded heart
He meets you where you are Jesus, He heals your secret scars All the love you’re longing for, all the love that you need Is Jesus, the friend of a wounded heart
The friend of a wounded heart, The friend of a wounded heart The friend of a wounded heart, The friend of a wounded heart
Rottenness of the Bones
By Leon Mauldin
Solomon said, “A tranquil heart is the life of the flesh; But envy is the rottenness of the bones.” When one has a heart that is calm, peaceful and tranquil, based upon the knowledge that one is in a right relationship with God, and is conducting himself as he should toward his fellow man, it tends to result in a better measure of well-being here in this life. On the other hand, envy contributes to the deterioration of one’s physical and spiritual health. Envy is the rottenness of the bones. It makes one miserable and unhappy.
Vine tells us that envy is the feeling of displeasure produced by witnessing or hearing of the advantage or prosperity of others. He differentiates envy from jealousy in this way: “envy desires to deprive another of what he has, jealousy desires to have the same or the same sort of thing for itself” (Vol. II, p. 37).
The Latin word in-video, from which our English word “envy” is derived, means “to look against,” to look with ill-will at another person. This may be because of what one is, or because of what he has (cf. Henddriksen’s Commentary on Titus, p. 388). The word “envy” means to eye with evil intent. Strangely, it seems that some who can easily enough weep with those who weep, have great difficulty at times in rejoicing with those that rejoice!
Putting It in Its Context
Looking at some of the biblical contexts in which envy is found, and seeing that with which it is associated helps us to better understand what envy is. In Proverbs 27:4, the reader is asked, “Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous but who is able to stand for envy?” Besides being found with wrath and anger, notice the companions of envy listed in 1 Timothy 6:4, where Paul describes the one who teaches a different doctrine: “He is conceited and understands nothing; but he has a morbid interest in controversial questions and disputes about words, out of which arise envy, strife, abusive language, evil suspicions, and constant friction” (NASB). The Gentile world was “filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity, whisperers” (Romans 1:29). Paul concluded that “they that practise such things are worthy of death” (verse 32). Consider the context in which we see envy in Titus 3:3: “For we also once were foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another.” Notice that before becoming Christians, they were “living in malice and envy.” They were leading a life of soul-destroying envy! It can become a way of life for any of us today.
What Envy Does (Biblical Cases)
Because of envy, Cain killed his brother Abel. “And wherefore slew he him? Because his works were evil, and his brother’s righteous” (1 John 3:12). Abel had something Cain did not want him to have, namely, God’s approval. Cain was envious because Abel had something which he himself did not have. And yet, that which Cain could have done to have God’s approval was the very thing he refused to do.
No doubt Jacob’s partiality toward Joseph contributed to the ill feelings of the brothers (but as adults they were responsible for their choices and their actions). When Joseph told of the dreams in which God was revealing that which was to come, we are told, “And his brethren envied him; but his father kept the saying in mind” (Genesis 37:11). Because of their envy, Joseph was sold into slavery. “And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt, but God was with him” (Acts 7:9).
Because of envy, David was driven into exile, as Saul hunted for him as one would hunt for a wild animal. The women of Israel had sung of David’s victory over Goliath, “Saul hath slain his thousands, but David his ten thousands” (1 Samuel 18:7). “And Saul was very wroth, and this saying displeased him.… And Saul eyed David from that day forward” (verses 8–9). The point would be reached that Saul would pursue him on a daily basis (1 Samuel 23:14). Envy was a chief motive behind Saul’s obsession: “And Saul saw and knew that Jehovah was with David … and Saul was David’s enemy continually” (1 Samuel 18:28–29). The problem, of course, was with Saul and with his sinful envy.
Envy put Christ on trial, and cried out for His crucifixion. Pilate “knew that for envy they had delivered him up” (Matthew 27:18). The Pharisees and scribes, the Sadducees, and especially the Sanhedrin could not stand the fact that the multitudes were flocking to Jesus, and were believing on Him. John lets us hear how they talked among themselves: “If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him” (John 11:48). “The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Behold how ye prevail nothing; lo, the world is gone after him” (John 12:19). How could we miss the envy in these words?
Spiritual Results of Envy
If unchecked, envy will distract a Christian from serving God as one fixates upon the object of his envy. It can completely destroy one’s effectiveness in the Lord’s kingdom. As with all unforgiven sins, the end result of envy is spiritual death (Romans 6:23). Envy is specifically mentioned as one of the works of the flesh which will cause one to miss heaven (Galatians 5:19–21).
Envy must be laid aside. “Putting away therefore all wickedness, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings, as newborn babes, long for the spiritual milk which is without guile that ye may grow thereby unto salvation” (1 Peter 2:1–2). At stake is one’s relationship to God. Envy must be eliminated if one is to be in right relationship with God. Developing biblical love is essential, for “love envieth not” (1 Corinthians 13:4). To cure envy, one must walk as the Spirit directs through the word. Paul said, “Walk by the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh” (Galatians 5:16).
Envy is the rottenness of the bones. It is deceptive, destructive and deadly.
Source: Christianity Magazine (Jacksonville, FL: Christianity Magazine, 1987).